Grüner Pastures

The Grüner Veltliner wine, once considered suitable only for quaffing in the Viennese Heurigen, has evolved into a wine that has earned its place in the lists of a handful of international restaurants.  Grüner Veltliner, literally meaning ‘green grape from the Veltlin village of Tirol’ is a local speciality grown on 36% of Austria’s 47,500 hectares of vineyards.

In style, the uniquely Austrian white wine Grüner Veltliner has elements in common with not only the wines of Germany, but also those of other countries. If I may venture a generalisation, the famous Grüner Veltliner is delicious, with floral-fruit typical of Rieslings wines, the snow-pea-kind of herbaceousness and fruitiness of Sauvignon Blancs from cool New World regions. Allied to it is the clean crisp yet un-aggressive dryness of the Australian Semillon wines whilst the silky richness found only in Alsace Gewurtztraminers completes the wine. With the best many varieties, no wonder Grüner Veltliner has become the most widely planted grape in Austria.

The Appetite Tasting Panel was convened and here’s what we thought of the wines.

The Panel

The Sommelier – Janice Koh
People who love bone dry Rieslings such as the zippy Aussie Clare types will love these wines. I was impressed with the freshness, even in the older wines. Some great Gruners were seen here today. I loved the big spectrum of flavour in the Loimer, the juxtaposed flavours of vanilla ice cream and minerals in the Neumayer Engelberg and the mineral crisp Neumayer Zwirch

The Wine Journalist – Jenny Tan
Most gruners are unoaked so it was refreshing to have toasty flavours in a gruner. Yet it is well handled. I am referring to the Kurt Angerer 1997. Wines like this were put up in a taste off in the UK recently and they beat some Burgundian Chardonnays!  There is potential in wood aged gruners.

The Wine Lecturer – Daniel
What an eclectic mix – so many styles in one variety. I am ecstatic. I’d drink Ott as there’s lots of stuff in the wine, and not forgetting the incredible balance. Then there is also Hirtzberger where I am seeing good development and its so different.

The Wine Journalist – Curtis
Huber was outstanding and way ahead, a classic with sea salt mineral flavours; Salomon Undhof was explosive – nutty with the salt and marmalade; and Neumayer Zwirch for its exotic botrytised style – this will will age. Ultimately my vote goes for the Non bortytised gruners – those with the inherent pomelo-grapefruit kind of searing acidity.

The Wine Consultant – John Chua
Just give me any gruners that are up to seven years old. There was a good showing here. I like them young. Huber for its overall taste, Ott for its density and refreshing taste and Salomon Undhof because it is spicy – all this is what gruner is.

Appetite Wine Editor – Ed soon
I could not imagine we tasted just one variety. And herein the secret is revealed. Savour them young but some can show those wonderful aged Riesling and mature Chardonnay characters when aged. This is a noble variety indeed. So bring on the sushi, the cheeses, the salads and even the meaty stews.

The Wines

* Good / ** Very Good / *** Outstanding

Nigl, ‘Privat’ 2006 (Kremstal) ** Peach, pear, yellow plums apricots, chick peas, intense, warm, textured, wholesome. A rich bold wine that works well with stews, meat dishes and cheeses
Markus Huber, ‘Obere Steigen’ 2006 (Traisental) *** Intense, with minerals, roses, bananas, lemons, grapefruit, sea salt. Racy and exuberant wine.
Eichinger ‘Gaisberg’ 2006 (Kamptal) *** Crystalline fresh, length with perfume of honey, peach, cream, tropical fruits and with a savoury finish and length. Truly a refreshing wine.
Loimer ‘Lois’ 2006 (Kamptal) ** Fresh minerality and squeeze of lemon, lingering although straightforward. A wine with lemon burst personality.
Ott ‘Der Ott’ 2006 (Wachau) ** Ripe banana and guava notes allied with white pepper, grapefruit, yet rich, warm and with a smoky savoury palate. A fruity wine.
Alzinger ‘Steinertal’ 2005 “smaragd” (Donauland) ** Hint of quince and peas, almonds florals and white stone fruits, fleshy yet zingy with a good balance. A poised wine.
Salomon ‘von Stein’ 2005 (Kremstal) ** Spicy, herbaceous, floral, biscuity, pickled ginger, mineral oil even; an inordinately complex wine.
Prager ‘Achleiten’ 2005 (Wachau) ** Edamame beans, green tea, off dry style with honey, botrytis but good intensity and an exotic wine.
Neumayer ‘Engelberg’ 2004 (Traisental) ** Leaner style with mint, herbal, bread, white pepper - exotic.
Neumayer ‘Zwirch’ 2004 (Traisental) ** Persimmons, pear, lemons and minerals. Pure with a toasty flavour. Angular wine.
F.X. Pichler 2003 “smaragd” (Wachau) ** Fat, fruity, toffee nose, earthy with barley mints and cammomile; textured and earthy wine.
Hirtzberger - Honivogl 2003 (Spitz/Donau-Wachau) ** Opulent, rich, honeyed with minerals and development of secondary bouquet. Layered and long and big.
Domaine Wachau (FWW) 2000 “smaragd” ** Atypical wine with whiffs of lemon curd, pineapples, flint and slightly oil but complex with soy and bacon.
Kurt Angerer ‘Donatus’ 1997 (Kamptal) ** Classic wood aged and mature wine nose - buttery, spicy, mineral oil, yet underlined by fresh citrus notes and some toast and vanilla. Smoky.

Grüner At a Glance
Growing Grüner

Previously, more the merrier – This variety adapts easily to many soil types and can produce at high crop levels. The Lenz Moser vine training system, named for the Austrian producer who developed it, was developed so that the vine could produce lots of grapes in widely spaced vineyards that accommodate machines to reduce labour costs. However, the wines farmed this way turned out to be light and simple; but lot of wine can be made this way.

Less is more, today –  In the 1990’s, Austria’s winemakers discovered that, with lower yields and higher ripeness, Grüner Veltliner can produce strikingly intense and concentrated wines. So began the shift towards high end Grüner Veltliners.

Grüner Where

The wines are terroir specific and so their styles can range from fruity with white-pepper nuances to those with secondary flavours reminiscent of lentils and bayleaf, depending on where the vine is grown.

•    Weinviertel – This district within Niederösterreich and Austria’s single largest winegrowing area and offers the medium- and light- bodied Gruner, of ordinary quality.

•    Wachau – Lying west of Vienna and facing south and on bank of the Danube is the Wachau region. Grüner here are made in the unctuous, hedonistic, ripe style. Many are identified on the label with the term Smaragd – and it is best to cellar the wines for 4-6 years prior to indulging.

•    Kremstal – Adjacent to the Wachau, is the Kremstal and its combination of loess soil and primary rock make for wines with greater body.

•    Kamtal – Here, you will find deep and powerful wines even more intensely flavored that that of the Kremstal, owing to the soil’s combination of loess, clay and primary rock.

Grüner What

•    Marvelously fresh, fruity, clean and simple to be enjoyed immediately after they are made in the Heurigen taverns around the country

•    Dry and full bodied,  with nuts, spice, nutmeg, almonds and nougat. You begin to appreciate the mouthfeel and textures due to the balance of acidity and sweetness, and the 12.5% alcohol

•    Full and complex (up to 14% alcohol) showing fruit flavours of pear, quince and apple.

•    Sweet and rich (late picked and also Trockenbeerenauslese), most wines with intense apricot and dried fruit overtones

Groovy Grüner Pairings

Despite all its various incarnations – there is a certain crystalline clarity and purity of flavour in Grüner Veltliners. Whichever style you chose, the wine has the uncanny ability to pair with all types of cuisines and especially with “difficult” foods such as artichokes and asparagus that usually overpower wines,

Spice Nice
Most of the wines are not high in alcohol, and so they can pair well with spicy dishes. White pepper  in some of the wines will echo the flavours in many Asian foods. The wine also pairs harmoniously with cumin, coriander in a Tunisian vegetarian cous cous. Try the light, brisk styles of gruner with light Thai or Malaysian dishes. The more intense Grüners will go with curries and sauces featuring peanuts or sesame oil.

Ja umami
Crispy Mushroom snacks or steamed Chinese mushroom-vegetable dish make very good liaisons with Grüner Veltliner. Try the dry style as well as the sweet style Grüners with sun dried tomatoes on toast – you will taste a marriage made in heaven.

Grüner Now

You will find the grape growin in Austria’s neighbouring countries.  In Hungary, it is known as Zoldveltelini whilst in the Czech Republic you can identify the grape as Veltlinske Zelene.

The grape has made its way from Europe, from Slovakia and Yugoslavia to the
South Island of New Zealand and to Oregon in the U.S.

Grüner Savvy

When you have become a Grüner Veltliner fan and can say the name of the wine correctly (pronounced: Groo-ner Velt-leener ), its time to show you know more. Being able to call up or order the styles, especially if you are in Austria ( Steinfeder for the lightest style; Federspiel means a richer, more fruit-intensive wine at 11.5% alcohol; and Smaragd for the complex version of 13-14% alcohol) shows you are no wine snob but a wine expert!

Want more?
Steinfeder usually refers to ‘quality wine’ of the Wachau; Federspiel is the equivalent of Kabinett (German and Austrian classification of non chaptalised wine with less than 10 grams per litre residual sugar); Smaragd means emerald, the colour of the tiny lizard inhabitants in the vineyards.
And if that is not enough, merely mention the family relations of Gruner. It is etymologically related to the lesser-known Roter (red) Veltliner and even lesser-known Brauner (brown) Veltliner, although the two darker grapes are genetically distinct from Grüner Veltliner.

This article was published in Appetite Magazine

Sicilian Wines

Wines from Sicily, Island in the Sun

Head south to the drowsy, holiday region that is the island of Sicily and you will note that it has awakened, at least in the domain of wine. Sicilian bulk wines had always anonymously ended up in blends further north, including Tuscany. But recently, the producers took a long hard look at their vineyards. The outcome – the Sicilian terroir of dry hot summers with hillside and maritime locations, is especially suited to the production of high quality bottled wines.

by qifei

Alessio Planeta, whose wines have charmed New World wine drinkers is convinced that Sicily will live up to its new reputation as the ‘new frontier’ of Italian winemaking,  alluding to Sicily as the ‘Australia of Europe’.

Indeed, the Sicilian terroir is a winemaker’s dream, enabling the easy production of ripe, sound grapes. But that can be a two edged sword. On the one hand, producing in volume, intensely coloured, high alcohol wine with not much character is easy. Conversely, if Sicily was to break from its mold, and head for the boutique end of the market, producers had to put on hold future streams of income from bulk wine in order to transform their operations.  This they did with varietals such as Chardonnay, Cabernet and Merlot, indicating to the wine world that Sicilian wines have a place on the connoisseurs table.

by depinniped

Some of the oldest companies like Corvo and Tasca d’Amerita continue traditions but have updated approaches. Corvo in the last few years has become a leader in the value for money stakes with its generic and worldwide ubiquitous bianco (white) and rosso (red) wines. Tasca d’Almerita has achieved the transition to modernity.  The techniques go beyond new vineyard work or cellar techniques. The production philosophy extends to alternating grapevines plantings with that of other crops and using natural means of cultivation with an awareness of the ecological environment.

As Sicily’s northern regional wine producers looked on with surprise at how quickly Sicilian wine gained acceptance in the world marketplace, Sicilian producers raised the ante further. Alongside the internationational varietals, they have begun producing outstanding versions of their indigeneous varietals such as Inzolia and Nero d’Avola, to name a white and a red.

Amongst the ambassadors of unique traditional varietals are Benanti and Palari, both offering incredibly tasty wines made from unheard of grapes such as Nerello, Cappuccio, Carricante and Galatena. If, you are not totally convinced, try a glass of something less esoteric sounding; say a Nero d’Avola, by Morgante or from any Sicilian producer.  The wine will seduce you with its juicy, cherry fruited but classy nature with its nuances of mint and eucalyptus, spice, vanilla and more.

Then go on to taste unabashed blends such as Nero D’Avola with Syrah, Petit Verdot and Cabernet (Santa Anastasia) or that of Nero d’Avola with Pinot Noir (Rapitala). You will begin to understand the Sicilian red grape’s accommodating nature and the enthusiasm of producers, attempting to bridge traditions and modernity.

Cottanera, whose un-irrigated vineyards are located on the slopes of Mount Etna has begun showcasing top end wines made from grapes, ‘foreign’ to Sicily such as Mondeuse and Syrah.  Sole di Sesta ‘Syrah’ shows incredible mastery of the French Rhone varietal.

And if market forces are an indication, Donnafugata’s Mille e una Notte, hardly into its 20th vintage, already boasts a price that reflects the super Sicilian status of the wine, yet the wine, a 100% DOC Nero d’Avola, is French oak aged.

Undoubtedly, Sicily has undergone its own wine revolution – her wines are now dazzling critics and winning the hearts and minds of restaurateurs and connoisseurs.

About Sicily

Sicily, lying south of the mainland of Italy, is an island set in antiquity. Fought over by countless invaders, its culture and heritage owes something to them all. Lovers of history, art and architecture will be swayed by the monuments of each of her historical epochs – from Greek temples, Roman Piazzas and Arabian buildings to Swabian palaces and churches overlaid with the baroque stamp of the Spanish.

Today, the adventurous might wish to scale or ski down the slopes of Mt. Etna, one of the world’s largest active volcanoes. Alternatively the drowsy, holiday region of Sicily offers lots of sun and sea, making for a perfect holiday with the bonus of good wine and food.

There are people who go to Sicily just for breakfast where they serve ice cream with morning coffee.  Throughout the day, you can delight your tastebuds with crispy and sweet ricotta cheese turnovers, chewy pistachio cookies, honey rice fritters, chocolate, cannoli, cassata and more.

Sicily is notable also for its seafood – mussels, tuna, sardines and swordfish are main and starter dishes. Pastas in fish sauce and eggplant dishes are aplenty.  Caponata is a sweet and sour speciality made from chillis, capers, olives, peppers and brinjals/eggplant.

As for wine, Sicily boasts hosts of good wines. Thousands of years ago, the Greeks brought their know-how, vines and wines to Sicily. For the last few decades Sicily has been known for her bulk wines. But of late, world wine drinkers have demanded something else – boutique and higher quality wines.  Thanks to the island’s diverse topography – from valleys to hillsides to maritime locations, diverse grape growing conditions exist. Thrown in are potassium rich volcanic ash soils and you get a range of ideal high quality bottled wines.

Thus we’re seeing firstly, wines made from familiar varietals such as Chardonnay and Shiraz but also Sicilian indigeneous varietal wines such as Inzolia (white) and Nero d’Avola (red). The Nero d’Avola, if you haven’t tried it, is a seductive grape which entices with its fragrance of blueberry and wild strawberries in the wine. Furthermore the wine will have soft smooth tannins and delight you with its lightly smoky bitter chocolate undertones.

If you have tasted Sicilian food, you might wonder if there are some similarities to Asian food. They have salted fish, sweet and sour flavours are found in many dishes and chilli is liberally used to spice things up. As such, Sicilian wines that go with Sicilian food could go well with certain Asian dishes.

Here is a shortlist of producers to look out for. Enjoy!

Corvo/Duca di Salaparuta offers economically priced wines. The value for money generic Corvo Bianco is crisp and delicate whilst the Corvo Rosso is well balanced and smooth.

Planeta, who specialise in New World styled wines put Sicily on the wine map. These days, they produce traditional wines as well.

If you thought Marsala was wine made for cooking with, try drinking the Superiore fine dry marsala of  Florio with Thai stir fried vegetables. The wine’s dried fruit and soy flavours and lightly sweet finish will make the food-wine marriage heavenly.

Tasca D’Almerita makes splendid traditional varietal red and white wines at various price points as well as a delicious but higher priced Chardonnay with well integrated fruit and wood flavours.

Baglio Hopps offers a beautifully textured Chardonnay blend (Briaco delle Gazzere), a Nero d’Avola with forest fruit flavours and a plummy Merlot-Cabernet blend (Incantari). Any of the three wines will go with grilled vegetables, salted fish, tuna or steak.

Lovers of Australian Shiraz and Southern Rhones will be impressed by Cottanera’s Sole di Sesta ‘Shiraz’ which is peppery, not jammy but leaves a warm glow in the mouth.  Donnafugata is a leading producer who has managed to place Sicily on the world wine map with the majestic red wine named 1001 Nights (Mille e un Notta). The producer’s sweet white wine called Ben Rye should goes well with nasi lemak. Try it also with chicken rice.

Benanti is a pharmacist who wanted to revive old Sicilian wine traditions so began producing Nero d’Avola and other wines. Benanti’s white Pietramarina Etna Bianco Superiore has soft fruit flavours and a honeyed texture. It is ideal for accompanying peppery or sweet-sour dishes.

Palari makes a wine from indigenous grapes too and it is called “Faro” (which means lighthouse) although it is also a DOC. The wine, blend of Nerello Mascalese, Nerello Cappuccio and Nocera, elevaged in French oak, is  complex, elegant, with savoury notes of spice and earth combined with that of fruit.

Juicy, cherry fruited, classy Nero d’Avola is the offering from Morgante.  With nuances of mint and eucalyptus, spice, vanilla, the wine drinks like a red Burgundy and is perfect for Peking Duck.

OTHER NAMES TO CONSIDER
Calatrasi, Rapitalà, Spadafora, Santa Anastasia, Valle dell’Acate.
RECENT TASTINGS
2006 Vignali Roccamora, Cataratto Bianco Sicilia IGT, $55
The “Vignali Roccamora” estate is situated in Contrada Montoni, at Agrigento, near the south west coast of Sicily. The wine project came about as the result of a collaboration between producers Gian Andrea Tinazzi (from Verona) and Gaetano Alfano (from Agrigento).
Taste: Pale straw yellow in colour, herbaceous with basil, lime and sour plums, pine and peppermint and a sustaining elegant finish.  ***
2005 Vignali Roccamora “Cratey’s” Nero Avola Merlot IGT $35
The Cratey’s is a 70% Nero d’Avola with 30% Merlot blend, intended to combine the exuberant bright fruit of Nero d’Avola with the velvety texture of Merlot. This wine is matured for 12 months in American oak.
Taste: Beautiful, warm spicy, red fruit, morello cherries, plums, medium weight with round and plumy finish, solid, yet not overbearing, with good length.  ***
2005 Etna Rosso, Feudo Di Mezzo, Etna DOC, $56
Terre Nere is located on Sicily’s Mount Etna, and vineyards are planted with late-ripening indigenous Nerello Mascalese and Nerello Capuccio — many of these vines were planted pre-phylloxera. The soils are mostly volcanic ash speckled by black pumice and peppered with abundant volcanic rock. Marco and Iano de Grazia are the proprietors here.  The first vintage was in 2002.
The Feudo di Mezzo vines average 80–100 years old. The 1.35-hectare vineyard is terraced, although not as steeply as the Guardiola vineyard. The soil here is a blend of volcanic ash and volcanic sand, quite unusual in this area. Feudi di Mezzo is located at high altitudes, ranging from 650–700 meters above sea level. The wine is a blend of Nerello Mascalese and Nerello Cappuccio.
Taste: Perfumed with cherries, coconut, blueberry and almonds; well-balanced, and with nice acidity and longish finish. ***
2005 Etna Rosso, Guardiola, Etna DOC, $56
The Guardiola is comprised of two vineyards planted to 100 per cent Nerello Mascalese for a total of 2.1 hectares. Vines are 50–150 years old. At 800–900 meters above sea level on the north side of Mount Etna, the Guardiola vineyard is the highest red-wine producing vineyard in all of Europe. Days are hot and tempered by breezes while it gets very cool in the evenings. The vineyard is organically farmed and vinification includes 10–15 days of maceration and 18 months in 25 per cent new French oak barriques.
Taste: Raspberries, vanilla, cherries, nutmeg, cinnamon, coconut and multi-layered; well-knitted with a stone fruit-bitter aftertaste. ***1/2

2005 Etna Rosso, Sottana Calderara , Etna DOC, $42

The Calderara Sottana, is from 40- to 50-year-old vines grown at 700m altitude.
by Christina de Fontao
The ‘Calderara Sottana,’ made from the indigenous Nerello Mascalese and Nerello Cappuccio. The Calderara vineyards are well exposed, and are not surrounded by hills; the “airiness” helps to protect the vines from mildew and oidium. The grapes are harvested at the end of October (making it the second to last harvest in all of Italy, after Aglianico). Vinification is simple, classic, and Burgundian in technique. Alcoholic fermentation and maceration on the skins lasts between 10 to 15 days; malolactic fermentation and maturation are carried out in oak (25% new). After 18 months the wine is bottled without filtering.
Taste: Plush with almonds, exotic spices, Christmas cake, soy sauce, with a dry mid palate and some light chewy tannins, and quite elegant.   ***

Barbaresco

by danielebneter

Only a one-hour drive south from the city of Turin (Torino) in Italy and an equal distance from the Mediterranean and the Western Alps is the wine sub-region of Barbaresco.The greater region is called the Piedmont and her famous wines are the Barolo and Barbaresco.

Like Barolo, Barbaresco is made from a noble grape called Nebbiolo, which has been cultivated in Northern Italy since the 14th century. Thanks to the microclimate, Barbaresco’s grapes are picked earlier. The laws require Barbaresco to have a lower alcohol requirement – 12.5% compared with Barolo’s 13% –  and Barbaresco is aged for a shorter period than Barolo.

As a result, the wine tastes a little less tannic, is less structured and comes across more elegant than Barolo. Hence, Barbaresco wines have been described as the smaller sibling to Barolo – or the yin of the yang

Barbaresco’s unique personality is also due to terroir. Lying next to the Tanaro river, the microclimate is moderated by the influence of the river – this allows the Nebbiolo to ripen here a little earlier than it does in the Barolo region. Most of the soil of Barbaresco is calcareous marl and, in parts, calcium rich soils are mixed with fertile alluvial soils (altogether sandier than soils in Barolo).

Because Barbaresco’s ripening period is shorter than Barolo’s, the resulting wine contains less tannins, acidity and fruit structure. This explains why Barbaresco wines tend to be lighter in body than the wines of Barolo; and are usually fruitier, more perfumed and more accessible in their youth compared to Barolos.

Why then do we hear so much about Barolo and so little about Barbaresco?

There are several reasons. Barbaresco producers are mostly small growers turned winemakers and production is about a third that of Barolo. The larger companies running estates in Barolo find it easier to promote and distribute their wines overseas. As such, Barbaresco has always been in the shadow of Barolo – often mentioned in conjunction with Barolo.

If Barolo consists of 11 villages, Barbaresco’s villages are small and number only four. They are Barbaresco, Nieve, Treiso and San Rocco (Alba). However, the vineyard names to remember (if you are a diehard aficionado) are just as numerous!

·BARBARESCO – Wines can be described as elegant, perfumed and complex; grapes are grown at an elevation of 270m.

The Grandi Vigne or cru vineyards are Asili, Bricco o Bricco Lemondo, Casotto-Loreto, Cavanna, Cole, Faset, Martinenga,  Moccagatta, Montaribaldi, Montefico; Montestefano, Morassino, Ovello, Pagliuzzi, Paje, Pora, Rabaja, Rio Sordo, Roccalini, Roncaglie, Roncagliette, Ronchi, Secondine and Vitalotti.

·TREISO – To the south of Barbaresco, grapes are grown here at an elevation of 410m. Wines are lighter in texture with sticky tannins.

The Grandi Vigne or cru vineyards are Bernardot o Bernardotti, Bordino, Bricco, Casot, Castellizzano, Manzola, Marcarini, Montersino, Nervo, Pajore, Rizzi, Rombone and Valeirano.

·NIEVE – Lies in the hills north-east of Barbaresco around the Neive township; grapes are grrown at 320m. Wines are full-bodied with medium-full tannins.

The Grandi Vigne or cru vineyards are Albesani, Basarin, Bordini, Bricco, Bricco Mondino, Canova, Cotta, Curra, Fausoni, Gaia Principe, Gallina, Marcorino, Messoirano, San Giuliano, Santo Stefano, Serraboella, Serracapelli and Starderi.

·San Rocco, Seno d’Elvio – Part of Alba, this tiny strip lies west and at an 180m elevation alongside the Treiso commune. It produces easy to drink wines, with stronger tannins balanced by sweet ripe black fruit flavours.

Note that all wines are called Barbaresco, although the commune may be named, similar to the case of Barolo. Note that almost 95% of Barbaresco is produced in the first three areas – Barbaresco, Treiso and Neive.

The Barbaresco appellation is a quarter of Barolo’s, and soils are more even, so differences amongst the various commune wines of Barbaresco are subtle.

Reading the label

Many wines can be identified by the name of the vineyard and some are better than others. Producers may share vineyards and some make better wines than their neighbours. Labels are easy to read but the information is difficult to process. If you think Barolo is difficult to understand, Barbaresco is even more complex.

Many producers own vineyards in different communes. Some make wine the old fashioned way, others offer modern wines. Occasionally you will find two styles from a producer as well as crus (single vineyards) and blends. Some of the best wines are those that combine both tradition and modernity – for example, the ageing of wines in new barriques for a period, to round out tannins and to pick up sweet spicy notes, and then in traditional large oak (botti) to draw out the amplitude and develop finesse in the wine.

Terms such as Bricco and Sori may appear on the label. They mean “ridge/hill peak’’ and “slope’’ respectively and producers might use these terms to indicate that wines produced from grapes grown on the vineyards on these ridges and slopes could be better than the normal.